If you’ve been around the art world for a while, chances are that you’ve heard the term “provenance”. If so, you’ve probably gotten the sense that it is important, but you may not know what it is or why it matters.
What is Provenance?
Provenance is an artwork’s history of ownership – who has owned the work and when. A complete provenance should account for a work’s whereabouts from the time it left the artist’s hands through the present day. It may be just a list of owners, or it may also include information about how and when it changed hands (gallery or auction sale, donation, inheritance, etc.).
Why is Provenance Important?
A solid provenance suggests that everything is alright with the art – that it is genuine, and that its past ownership has been honest. If you know where an artwork’s has been at all times since it was finished, you can be reasonably certain that it is genuine. Not completely, of course, since provenance itself is sometimes faked. Similarly, objects with gaps in their provenance may have be stolen at some point. Be particularly suspicious of works whose World War Two-era provenance is missing or questionable.
With all of that being said, unclear provenance doesn’t necessarily mean that a work was forged or stolen. The art market doesn’t have a history of being particularly transparent, though it’s recently come under pressure to become more so. Many sellers want to remain anonymous, often to hide the financial difficulties that motivated them to sell. Consequently, it’s very common to find “private collection” without any name listed as an owner in the provenance. That’s not very helpful, but it doesn’t have to be a sign that something is wrong.
Obviously, anybody hoping to acquire a work of art will be very interested in its provenance. But it’s also useful to others, since knowing who has owned a work in the past may add to its story. For art historians, a piece’s early provenance in particular can provide valuable information about the circumstances of its creation. In the case of ancient art, the archaeological provenance (details about how it was found in an ancient site) is absolutely critical to understanding it.
How Do You Determine Provenance?
Any art dealer, gallery, or auction house offering a work for sale should provide information about the provenance. It’s usually online and in the catalog, but you can request it if not. Museum collections give provenance in their collection databases and often in any exhibition catalogs the work appears in.
If the available provenance information is insufficient or needs to be verified, it’s time to conduct some research. Provenance research is time-consuming but a lot of fun, at least in my opinion. It usually involves looking through lots of auction catalogs, sale records, and archives to either determine or verify provenance.